TAJ MAHAL-World's 7th Wonder

 TAJ MAHAL -World 7th Wonder















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                         The uniqueness of Taj Mahal lies in some truly remarkable innovations carried out by the horticulture planners and architects of Shah Jahan. One such genius planning is the placing of a tomb at one end of the quadripartite garden rather than in the exact center, which added rich depth and perspective to the distant view of the monument. It is also, one of the best examples of raised tomb variety.
The Taj Mahal is located on the right bank of the Yamuna River in a vast Mughal garden that encompasses nearly 17 hectares, in the Agra District in Uttar Pradesh. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal with construction starting in 1632 AD and completed in 1648 AD, with the mosque, the guest house and the main gateway on the south, the outer courtyard and its cloisters were added subsequently and completed in 1653 AD. The existence of several historical and Quranic inscriptions in Arabic script has facilitated setting the chronology of the Taj Mahal. For its construction, masons, stone-cutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran. Ustad-Ahmad Lahori was the main architect of the Taj Mahal.

The tomb is further raised on a square platform with the four sides of the octagonal base of the minarets extended beyond the square at the corners. The top of the platform is reached through a lateral flight of steps provided in the center of the southern side. The ground plan of the Taj Mahal is in a perfect balance of composition, the octagonal tomb chamber in the center, encompassed by the portal halls and the four corner rooms. The plan is repeated on the upper floor. The exterior of the tomb is square in plan, with chamfered corners. The large double storied domed chamber, which houses the cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan, is a perfect octagon in plan. The exquisite octagonal marble lattice screen encircling both cenotaphs is a piece of superb workmanship. It is highly polished and richly decorated with inlay work. The borders of the frames are inlaid with precious stones representing flowers executed with wonderful perfection. The hues and the shades of the stones used to make the leaves and the flowers appear almost real. The cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal is in the perfect center of the tomb chamber, placed on a rectangular platform decorated with inlaid flower plant motifs. The cenotaph of Shah Jahan is greater than Mumtaz Mahal and installed more than thirty years later by the side of the latter on its west. The upper cenotaphs are only illusory and the real graves are in the lower tomb chamber (crypt), a practice adopted in the imperial Mughal tombs.
The four free-standing minarets at the corners of the platform added a hitherto unknown dimension to the Mughal architecture. The four minarets provide not only a kind of spatial reference to the monument but also give a three-dimensional effect to the edifice.
The most impressive in the Taj Mahal complex next to the tomb is the main gate which stands majestically in the center of the southern wall of the forecourt. The gate is flanked on the north front by double arcade galleries. The garden in front of the galleries is subdivided into four quarters by two main walk-ways and each quarter in turn subdivided by the narrower cross-axial walkways, on the Timurid-Persian scheme of the walled-in garden. The enclosure walls on the east and west have a pavilion at the center.

The most impressive in the Taj Mahal complex next to the tomb is the main gate that stands majestically in the center of the southern wall of the forecourt. The gate is flanked on the north front by double arcade galleries. The garden in front of the galleries is subdivided into four quarters by two main walk-ways and each quarter in turn subdivided by the narrower cross-axial walkways, on the Timurid-Persian scheme of the walled-in garden. The enclosure walls on the east and west have a pavilion at the center.
The Taj Mahal is a perfect symmetrical planned building, with an emphasis on bilateral symmetry along a central axis on which the main features are placed. The building material used is brick-in-lime mortar veneered with red sandstone and marble and inlay work of precious/semi-precious stones. The mosque and the guest house in the Taj Mahal complex are built of red sandstone in contrast to the marble tomb in the center. Both buildings have a large platform over the terrace at their front. Both the mosque and the guest house are identical structures. They have an oblong massive prayer hall consist of three vaulted bays arranged in a row with a central dominant portal. The frame of the portal arches and the spandrels are veneered in white marble. The spandrels are filled with flowery arabesques of stone intarsia and the arches bordered with rope molding.
The Taj Mahal is considered to be the greatest architectural achievement in the whole range of Indo-Islamic architecture. Its recognized architectonic beauty has a rhythmic combination of solids and voids, concave and convex and light shadow; such as arches and domes further increases the aesthetic aspect. The color combination of lush green scape reddish pathway and blue sky over it showcases the monument in ever-changing tints and moods. The relief work in marble and inlay with precious and semi-precious stones makes it a monument apart.

     In spite of various traditions and conspiracy theories that pop up every other day, most of the historians have reached a     conclusion that Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal. The order of the construction was passed in the year 1631 A.D and the construction started that very year. According to the rock edict   that is placed at the gateway of Taj, it has been concluded that the  construction work was carried by 22,000 laborers and was completed in the year 1654. The chief designer of this mausoleum was Isa Mohammad Khan who was assisted by Ustad Isa of Persia.
Qazim Khan of Lahore did the golden embroidery works whereas Amanat Ali Khan of Iran did the
calligraphy. Mohammad Arif was the chief supervisor. It was later claimed that Italian designer Eronimo Veroneo, designed the Taj Mahal but there is no solid proof to corroborate the fact. The confusion might have arisen because of the fact that Isa of Isa Khan means Christ in Arabic and that led European to believe that the designer was a christen. P.N. Oak claimed in his book that the Taj Mahal was a Hindu Temple but both Judiciary, as well as the body of the historians, thrashed his bizarre and laughable arguments. Shanjhan built the Taj Mahal so he could remember his wife!  
Famous as one of the wonders of the world, the Taj Mahal at Agra, India, is the epitome of true love and passion. The Taj Mahal was built by the famous Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The architectural beauty and magnificence of the Taj Mahal have never been surpassed. It is said to be the most beautiful monument built by the Mughal rulers and represents the zenith of the Mughal architecture. Built entirely out of white marbles, the beauty of the Taj Mahal is beyond description. The beauty of the Taj Mahal has been aptly summarized by the famous English poet, Sir Edwin Arnold, as "Not a piece of architecture, as other buildings are, but the proud passions of an emperor's love wrought in living stones."

Taj Mahal, synonymous with India’s identity is the crowning jewel of Mughal architecture in India. The Mughal tradition of erecting majestic mausoleums in memory of Royal members found its culmination in the Taj’s majestic form. The Humayun’s tomb built-in 1562 was a major influence over Taj’s design. An architectural marvel, the structure incorporates elements of Persian influences like the design of the Dome and incorporation of arched entrances or ‘Iwans’ along with inspiration from contemporary Hindu design elements like chhatris and copious incorporation of the lotus motif. Described by Tagore as “the tear-drop on the cheek of time”, the monument embodies funereal austerity turned into the most beautiful reminder of eternal love.
Taj Mahal is part of an elaborate complex consisting of a decorative gateway, a beautifully designed garden, a wonderful water system, and a mosque. The complex is situated on the southern banks of river Yamuna. The complex stretches in a south to north incline towards the river and is constructed in steps.


The central focus of the complex is the Tomb structure. Made completely out of white marble, its beauty lies in the symmetry of its architecture. The structure is situated on a raised square plinth, also made of white marble, at a height of 50 m from the river level, at one end of the complex. The tomb itself is situated at the center of the plinth, framed by four equidistant minarets. The Taj Mahal is a square structure with sides measuring 55 m. The minarets are spread at a distance of 41.75 m from the tomb wall and have a height of 39.62 m. There is a bulbous central dome in the main building, 18.28 m in diameter and 73 m in height. The dome is elevated from the top of the building by a 7 m high cylindrical base. It is decorated at its top by lotus motif and ends in a gilded finial topped with the Islamic half-moon. The spherical and grand aspect of the central dome is emphasized by the incorporation of smaller domes on both sides in the form of chhatris, also capped in gilded finials. Each minaret is divided into three equal segments by two balconies and has an octagonal base. The delicate curve of the dome is emphasized by the tapering structure and slightly angular placement of the minarets. The entrance to the main tomb is framed by a huge arched vault or Iwan which in turn is again framed by two similar but smaller arches on each side. These arches indicate stacked balconies along with two different levels. This is called pishtaqs, which is replicated on all the eight edges of the building affording it another dimension of symmetry.
The juxtaposition of solids and voids in combination with concave and convex design elements creates a breathtaking effect of contrast. The marble exterior changes color periodically reflecting the light conditions of the day and produce an astonishing pearly diaphanous effect at night.
The exteriors of the Taj are inlaid with intricate decorations. Generously inlaid with precious gemstones like opals, lapis lazuli, and jade, the decorations offer stunning flashes of color against a white background.  Stucco and paintings cover the exterior walls along with calligraphy of verses from the Quran or excerpts from poems in black marble. Murals of herringbone inlays and marble jaalis, mosaics of colored stones in geometric patterns along with abstract tessellations cover the exterior floors and surfaces.

The interior of the Taj Mahal is dominated by a cavernous octagonal central chamber with eight smaller chambers radiating from it. The smaller chambers are leveled across two floors making a total of 16 such niches. The central chamber is the main funerary chamber housing the cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. The two ornate marble cenotaphs are enclosed within a marble screen and face the south. The actual sarcophagi are housed below the tomb is a relatively simple crypt. Although Islam prohibits elaborate decoration of tombs, Shah Jahan flamboyantly overlooked the dictate and commissioned opulent detailing of the interior surfaces. Inlays of Pietra dura and lapidary adorn the floors and works of the walls and floors. Copious amounts of gemstones were used for the design along with colored stones. Highly polished surfaces reflect the light filtered through marble latticework in the windows and arches. Calligraphic inscriptions of the 99 names of God is carved on the tombs itself and on Shah Jahan’s tomb an addition passage has been inscribed in impeccable calligraphy reading "He traveled from this world to the banquet-hall of Eternity on the night of the twenty-sixth of the month of Rajab, in the year 1076 Hijri".


Every element of the Taj complex was designed to uphold the majesty and beauty of the Taj Mahal. The main entrance gateway or Darwaza-e-Rauza is constructed with red sandstone and is designed in such a way that standing outside the archway one cannot see the Taj, but upon entering it manifests offering a breathtaking effect.
The mosque on the western side of the Taj Mahal and the Nakkar Khana or guest house on the eastern side are made with red sandstone. They are mirror images of each other in design, which in Mughal architectural terms is called Jawab, and enhance the symmetry of the Taj along with emphasizing the translucent beauty of the white marble structure.


Every element of the Taj complex was designed to uphold the majesty and beauty of the Taj Mahal. The main entrance gateway or Darwaza-e-Rauza is constructed with red sandstone and is designed in such a way that standing outside the archway one cannot see the Taj, but upon entering it manifests offering a breathtaking effect.
The mosque on the western side of the Taj Mahal and the Nakkar Khana or guest house on the eastern side are made with red sandstone. They are mirror images of each other in design, which in Mughal architectural terms is called Jawab, and enhance the symmetry of the Taj along with emphasizing the translucent beauty of the white marble structure.


Several myths surround the Taj Mahal. The widest spread of them is that after completion of construction, Shah Jahan ordered the thumbs of the architects and workers to be cut of so that they cannot reproduce the work they did for him. This, however, does not have any historical evidence.
There is also the myth of Shah Jahan commissioning a Black Taj Mahal, but was unable to finish it since his rule was overthrown by his son Aurangzeb. Some historians believe that the ruins excavated in the Mehtab Bagh, situated on the opposite bank of the river The Yamuna, are the incomplete remains of the structure owing to its similarity with the Taj Mahal’s symmetrical architecture.


                   In contrast to most Mughal gardens (charbaghs), which are rectilinear in shape and usually feature a tomb in their Centre, the 17-acre (980-foot square) Taj Mahal garden leads up to the tomb instead of surrounding it. According to the Archeological Survey of India, this may be because the Yamuna River itself was also incorporated into the design of the grounds. The principal axis of the garden runs north-south from the gate to the tomb. It is divided into four quarters by four intersecting canals, symbolizing the Four Rivers of Paradise, reinforced with fountains and lined with cypress trees. The four waterways meet at a raised, central lotus pond of white marble, whose surface reflects the image of the mausoleum. Each quarter of the garden is quartered further by avenues of trees and fountains re-landscaped during the 19th century in the formal English style. Stretching in front of the Taj Mahal is a monumental char bagh garden. Typically, a Char Bagh was divided into four main quadrants, with a building (such as a pavilion or tomb) along its central axis. When viewed from the main gateway today, the Taj Mahal appears to deviate from this norm, as it is not centrally placed within the garden, but rather located at the end of a complex that is backed by the river, such as was found in other Mughal-era pleasure gardens.

               The garden incorporated waterways and fountains. This was a new type of gardening that was introduced to India by Babur, Shah Jahan’s great grandfather in the sixteenth century. Given the passage of time and the intervention of many individuals in the garden since its construction, it is hard to determine the original planting and layout scheme of the garden beds at the Taj.
From the outset, the Taj was conceived of as a building that would be remembered for its magnificence for ages to come, and to that end, the best material and skills were employed. The finest marble came from quarries 250 miles away in Makrarna, Rajasthan. Mir Abd Al-Karim was designated as the lead architect. Abdul Haqq was chosen as the calligrapher, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri was made the supervisor. Shah Jahan made sure that the principles of Mughal architecture were incorporated into the design throughout the building process.


       Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra, where he took the throne in 1628. First conquered by Muslim invaders in the eleventh century, the city had been transformed into a flourishing area of trade during Shah Jahan’s rule. Situated on the banks of the Yamuna River allowed for easy access to water, and Agra soon earned the reputation as a “riverfront garden city,” on account of its meticulously planned gardens, lush with flowering bushes and fruit-bearing trees in the sixteenth century.


                 If his accession to the throne was smooth, Shah Jahan’s departure from it was not.  The emperor died not as a ruler, but as a prisoner. Relegated to Agra Fort under house arrest for eight years prior to his death in 1666, Shah Jahan could enjoy only a distant view of the Taj Mahal.  But the resplendent marble mausoleum he built “with posterity in mind” endures, more than 350 years after it was constructed, and is believed to be the most recognizable sight in the world today. Laid to rest beside his beloved wife in the Taj Mahal, the man once called Padshah—King of the World—enjoys enduring fame, too, for having commissioned the world’s most extravagant and memorable mausoleum. When Mumtaz Mahal died at age 38 in 1631, the emperor is reported to have refused to engage in court festivities, postponed two of his sons’ weddings, and allegedly made frequent visits to his wife’s temporary resting place (in Burhanpur) during the time it took for the building of the Taj to be completed. Stories like these have led to the Taj Mahal is referred to as an architectural “symbol of love” in popular literature. But there are other theories: one suggests that the Taj is not a funeral monument and that Shah Jahan might have built a similar structure even if his wife had not died. Based on the metaphoric specificity of Qur’anic and other inscriptions and the emperor’s love of thrones, another theory maintains that the Taj Mahal is a symbolic representation of a Divine Throne—the seat of God—on the Day of Judgment. A third view holds that the monument was built to represent a replica of a house of paradise. In the “paradisiacal mansion” theory, the Taj was something of a vanity project, built to glorify Mughal rule and the emperor himself.

                         The Taj Mahal is one of the world’s great tourist attractions, hosting millions of visitors per year. Though it was designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 and is currently overseen by the Archaeological Survey of India, its heavy visitor traffic is just one of the many factors that threaten the integrity of the site.
One of the biggest risk factors for the Taj Mahal is air pollution, which discolors the exterior and, some experts think, causes acid rain that deteriorates the marble. Air pollution is caused by a multitude of factors including industry, vehicle emissions, and the burning of household waste. The government of India designated an area called the Taj Trapezium Zone (named for its trapezoidal shape), a 10,400 square kilometer swath (about 4,000 square miles) of Agra encompassing the Taj Mahal as well as the Agra Fort and the historic Mughal settlement of Fatehpur Sikri. Oil refineries and coal-burning industries have been ordered to regulate their emissions or switch to natural gas within this zone and most have complied.
There has also been a ban on auto traffic near the Taj Mahal, air quality monitors have been installed, and the Archaeological Survey of India has proposed a tourist cap and increased fees to limit visitor impact.
Another potential risk for the Taj Mahal is the drying up of the Yamuna River, which flows along the rear of the complex. The river has been partially dammed upstream from the Taj Mahal in order to augment municipal water supplies, and some argue that the changes in the soil due to the lower water table may be threatening the structural integrity of the monument. Various activists and scholars have claimed to have found cracks in the marble platform, the sinking of the structure, and tipping of the minarets, though UNESCO asserts that
The physical fabric is in good condition and structural stability, nature of foundation, the verticality of the minarets and other constructional aspects of Taj Mahal have been studied and continue to be monitored.
The Taj Mahal is rightly a top destination for millions of travelers. As global tourism grows and the economic pressures of the industry continue to increase, the authorities who oversee the site must strive to implement legal and structural measures to ensure that this irreplaceable monument survives.
The effects of Agra’s airborne pollution aren’t confined to the Taj Mahal. “The situation of Agra with respect to air pollution is bad,” “We have PM10 data from 2006 to 2012 [including] six air-quality monitoring stations data for Agra. None of the monitoring stations meet the World Health Organization guidelines or Central Pollution Control Board of India standards.”


          The Most Beautiful Mausoleums in the  World The Love Story.
It was in 1607 that Shah Jahan, a grandson of Akbar the Great, first met his beloved. At the time, he was not yet the fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire. Sixteen-year-old Prince Khurram, as he was then called, flitted around the royal bazaar, flirting with the girls from high-ranking families that staffed the booths.
At one of these booths, Prince Khurram met Arjumand Banu Begum, the 15-year-old young woman whose father was soon to be the prime minister and whose aunt was married to Prince Khurram’s father. Although it was love at first sight, the two were not allowed to marry right away. Prince Khurram first had to marry Kandahari Begum. He later took a third wife as well.
On March 27, 1612, Prince Khurram and his beloved, to whom he gave the name Mumtaz Mahal, were married. Mumtaz Mahal was beautiful as well as smart and tender-hearted. The public was enamored with her, in no small part because she cared for the people. She diligently made lists of widows and orphans to ensure that they were given food and money. The couple had 14 children together but only seven lived past infancy. It was the birth of the 14th child that would kill Mumtaz Mahal.
The Taj Mahal is a breathtaking white-marble mausoleum commissioned by Mughul Emperor Shah Jahan for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Located on the southern bank of the Yamuna River near Agra, India, the Taj Mahal took 22 years to build and finally reached completion in 1653.
This exquisite monument, considered one of the New Wonders of the World, astounds visitors for its symmetry, structural beauty, intricate calligraphy, inlaid gemstones, and magnificent garden. More than just a memorial in the name of a spouse, the Taj Mahal was a declaration of lasting love from Shan Jahan to his departed soulmate.


       Shah Jahan, filled with grief, poured his emotion into designing an elaborate and expensive mausoleum that would bring all those that had come before it to shame. It was also unique in that it was the first large mausoleum dedicated to a woman.
Although no primary architect for the Taj Mahal is known, it is believed that Shah Jahan, passionate about architecture himself worked on the plans directly with the input and aid of a number of the best architects of his time. The intention was for the Taj Mahal, “the crown of the region”, to represent Heaven, on Earth. Shah Jahan spared no expense in making this happen.
Marble in White
White marble is one of the most striking and prominent features of the Taj Mahal. The marble used was quarried in Makrana, 200 miles away. Reportedly, it took 1,000 elephants and an untold number of oxen to drag the extremely heavy marble to the building site.
For the massive marble pieces to reach to higher spaces of the Taj Mahal, a giant, 10-mile-long an earthen ramp was built. The Taj Mahal is topped with a huge double-shelled dome that stretches 240 feet and is also covered in white marble. Four thin, white marble minarets stand tall at the corners of the second plinth and surround the mausoleum.

Entry Fee

S. No.
Types of Tourist
Amount INR
Inclusive of ASI and ADA fees
Foreign -  Mausoleum (Optional)
1100/- + 200/-
Additional for visiting main mausoleum (Optional)
Domestic/Indian / OCI Cardholder
50/- + 200/-
Additional for visiting main mausoleum (Optional)
Citizens of SAARC and BIMSTEC Countries
540/ + 200/-
Additional for visiting main mausoleum (Optional)

Tourists buying tickets online will get a discount of Rs.5/- for per Indian ticket & Rs. 50/- for per Foreigner ticket.
No Entry fee for children below the age of 15 years. (both Domestic and Foreigner).
Additional Rs.200/- will be charged if one wants to visit the main mausoleum


             Official Website asi.payumoney.com & www.asiagracircle.in offers information and ticketing service for Taj Mahal tickets. Both foreign and domestic visitors may use the e-ticket booking for the ASI Taj Mahal and other monuments.


   Dates for Full Moon for Night Viewing of Taj Mahal in The Year 2020-2021

Date- DD-MM-YY






2020 being the month of Ramadan from in June, there will be no night vision of Taj Mahal in May.













Note:- During the year 2020-21 Taj Mahal Night viewing will be open two days before and two days after the above noted full moon date (Except Friday).
The Tickets of the night viewing can be purchased one day before the night view date from the counter at ASI office, 22 Mall Road, Agra from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.pm.

ote:- Above dates of full moon area based on Astrological calculations which are likely to vary sometimes. Tourists are advised to contact their travel agent/hotel/tourist offices/Archeological Server of India/visit - http://www.asiagracircle.in Tourists must reach at Shilpgram (near Eastern gate of Taj Mahal,) half an hour before the scheduled time mentioned on their tickets for security checks.

Night viewing of the Taj Mahal is closed every Friday & in the month of Ramzan.
The Taj Mahal, for which even the course of the river Yamuna is said to have been diverted, can best be described in the words of the Noble Laureate Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore,
Taj Mahal Night Viewing Tickets available One Day before Night Viewing of the Taj Mahal

Indian Citizen
10.00 A.M. to 6.00 P.M
750/- INR
Foreigner Citizen
10.00 A.M. to 6.00 P.M
Child (3-15-year-old)
500/- INR
Both Citizen
10.00 A.M. to 6.00 P.M


             Agra, an old heritage city on the bank of the river Yamuna finds mention in the Epic Mahabharata as Agravan. Ptolemy, the famous 2nd Century Geographer, marked it as Agra on the World map. It is generally accepted that Sultan Sikandra Lodi, the Ruler of Delhi Sultanate founded it in the year 1504 AD but the golden age of the city began with Mughal rulers after 1526 AD. It was then known as Akbarabad and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under Emperor Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, Agra’s significance as a political center ended with the transfer of the capital to Delhi by Emperor Shah Jahan, but its architectural wealth has secured its place on the International map.

President Donald Trump Meet Prime Minister Modi

Donald Trump, along with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, addressed more than one lakh people at the 'Namaste Trump' event.

Donald Trump arrived at Ahmedabad's Sardar Vallabhbhai International Airport at 11:40 am. The US president is also accompanied by his wife and first lady Melania Trump. He had a 22-km roadshow in Ahmedabad with PM Modi, after which he attended the 'Namaste Trump' program and addressed more than one lakh people present there.

US President Donald Trump and his wife Melania Trump and their children Ivanka Trump is a Senior Advisor to the President of the United States and Tiffany Ariana Trump (born October 13, 1993) is an American model, socialite, and law student visited the iconic Taj Mahal, a symbol of beauty and love, where the two got to know and understand India's culture and diversity. Both spent a good time at the Taj Mahal and experienced the beauty of the Taj Mahal and its beautiful environment and architecture very well. President Donald Trump visited the Taj Mahal because of his personal choice, he went and saw the Taj Mahal himself, knowing its beauty and very well about it. Visiting the Taj Mahal was very important to him, US President Donald Trump also got a picture of him standing in front of the Center of Attraction Table at the Taj Mahal. After visiting the Taj Mahal, Trump arrived in Delhi at 19:30, where he discussed issues related to trade and defence deals with India with two Asha leaders along with a high-level delegation with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

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